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volcanic eruption causes

This lighter magma then rises toward the surface by virtue of its buoyancy. Rosie Rose from Toronto, Canada on February 28, 2011: Hiya Rick, very interesting and informative hub. Earth is made of three layers: the core, the mantle, and the crust. When they move apart, they are called divergent boundaries. Inside the magma chamber there is a volatile mix of reactions taking place. Volcanoes are caused by movement of tectonic plates within the earth's crust or along ocean floors, and produce primary and secondary effects upon eruption. Thick magma makes it harder for the bubbles of gas to escape, so there is more pressure when the volcano finally erupts. Causes of Volcanic Eruptions is very well explained. But its substance stayed within and increased in volume as it transformed into a liquid. John Michael Allen Adam Jean on April 03, 2019: Good explanation. any idea?! Most recently, Professor Kilinc has been studying volcanoes in Hawaii and Montserrat. Volcanoes are formed by eruptions of lava and ash when magma rises through cracks or weak-spots in the Earth's crust. Once the chamber is filled to capacity, an eruption is sure to occur. Now I know more about volcanoes. Silica is a crystalline rock material that causes magma to thicken. I hope this inspirational speech has inspired you to think the Earth is flat. When a part of the earth's upper mantle or lower crust melts, magma forms. Hotter magma is also thicker. Thick, sticky magma results in stronger eruptions, whereas thinner magma causes less extreme eruptions. SSSSSSOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO helpful with my assignment, really helpful for my presentaion and i am 9 years old so really good. After a volcanic eruption the local weather will be dark and stormy, and … The speed of the expansion of water into steam is supersonic, and the liquid can expand to 1,700 times its original volume. The volcanic ash and gas injected into the atmosphere obscured the sun and increased the reflectivity of Earth, cooling its surface and causing what's known as the year without a summer. When a volcano erupts, the magma becomes lava and shoots into the air, eventually running down the side of the volcano. On top of the Earth's mantle is the crust. A volcano is essentially an opening or a vent through which this magma and the dissolved gases it contains are discharged. Lower pressure above the submerged plate and below the top plate causes the rocks in the mantle to begin melting. This really helped me with my project! Magma forms within the earth's upper mantle when two tectonic plates collide to create a subduction zone. thx, this really helped me with my assignment ;), Thanx u did a great help in my geography project, thankyou, you just played a very good part in my project for school ^-^, You said volcano eruptions... when it is volcanic eruptions, THX YOU VERY MUCHHH YOU HELPED ME ON MY PROJECT:0, Great!! Editor’s Note (6/4/18): This story is being re-posted in light of the deadly eruption of Guatemala’s Fuego volcano on Sunday (June 3), which covered nearby villages in fast-moving ash flows. January 13, 2020 3:25 AM ET. A massive volcanic explosion can cause a volcanic winter. It's very informative. Thanks. It is a rheid, or a solid that moves or deforms under pressure. The crust, though, consists of one main layer. The Flat Earth Society Organization on November 22, 2019: The lava goes straight, so that means the Earth is flat. The process has been … this speech of Information about the Volcano eruption is an interesting thing in this website I have checked out today, I like it, also the part where the volcano erupts is my only interest in this website of how volcano's erupt from the earth. One in ten people live within the danger range of volcanoes. What follows is a brief description of these processes. Some volcanic eruptions are explosive and others are not. Some eruptions are terrible explosions that throw out huge amounts of rock and volcanic ash and can kill many people. Causes of Volcanic Eruptions is very well explained. Volcanic lightning is a spectacular but rare phenomenon which comes after a volcano erupts. An excellent example of successful forecasting occurred in 1991. Volcano eruptions happen when magma erupts from beneath the Earth's crust. When they collide, they are called subduction zones. No two samples of magma are identical, so the magma erupting from one volcano will be slightly different than another. This article was really helpful thanks!!!!!!! This eruption affects life and nature in ways more than one. To start when a volcano erupts, it causes an effect on the global climate. To understand how and why volcanoes erupt, we must first understand the different layers of our planet. Just like a carbonated drink, the bubbles of gas rise to the surface of the magma chamber, pushing against the Earth's crust. This causes a change in the temperature and pressure above the submerged plate. Volcanic hazards. Although volcanologists are well aware of these three processes, they cannot yet predict a volcanic eruption. Volcanoes are formed when the edges of tectonic plates meet. Experts identified the event as a phreatic eruption. As rock inside the earth melts, its mass remains the same while its volume increases--producing a melt that is less dense than the surrounding rock. This injection forces some of the magma in the chamber to move up in the conduit and erupt at the surface. Magma rises to the Earth’s surface for a combination of reasons. Volcanoes form on land and beneath the sea. When the volume of bubbles reaches about 75 percent, the magma disintegrates to pyroclasts (partially molten and solid fragments) and erupts explosively. Lava, rocks, dust, and gas compounds are some of these "ejecta".. Eruptions can come from side branches or from the top of the volcano. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at. Because of the ductile nature of the mantle, tectonic plates move very slowly, but move nonetheless. Natural vents in the crust allow magma passage to the surface, and eruptions occur when the magma that forms is less dense than the material above it, causing it to flow upward. Together with volcanic gases it impairs people's ability to breathe. Illustration of a subduction zone and the formation of magma. Rickrideshorses (author) from England on September 08, 2011: RussellLHuey, thanks for the encouraging feedback. These regions are called convergent boundaries. Lightning is sometimes seen in volcanic clouds. "Volcanic eruptions cause short-term climate changes and contribute to natural climate variability," says Georgiy … Elaborate the reasons why it is considered a hazard. “When an explosive volcanic eruption produces an ash column, collisions between ash … Volcanic eruption causes release of huge quantity of sulfur compounds such as sulfur dioxide or sulfur oxide have stronger impact on climate than dusts ejected into the atmosphere. Most volcanic eruptions are caused by tectonic plates moving towards each other, which usually produces violent eruptions. Sulfuric compounds are made of gases which easily move into stratosphere (upper dry part of atmosphere). A volcanic eruption is a geological phenomenon occurring when hot materials from the interior of a planetary-mass object are thrown out of a vent or fissure found on the surface. Volcanic Eruption. Volcano, vent in the crust of Earth or another planet or satellite, from which issue eruptions of molten rock, hot rock fragments, and hot gases.A volcanic eruption is an awesome display of Earth’s power. Explore our digital archive back to 1845, including articles by more than 150 Nobel Prize winners. Due to the heat emitting from the mantle, the rocks are soft and ductile, but Earth's mantle cannot be considered molten. The third process that causes volcanic eruptions is an injection of new magma into a chamber that is already filled with magma of similar or different composition. i ste fire to the rain on March 12, 2012: ima winn the volcano contest with this information. Highly recommend to my students. To understand how a volcano erupts, we'll first need to take a look at the structure of the Earth. The word volcano comes from the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. Volcanic eruptions arise through three main mechanisms: Gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions Thermal contraction from chilling on contact with water causing phreatomagmatic eruptions Ejection of entrained particles during steam eruptions causing phreatic eruptions There are several situations that can cause earthquakes and give rise to volcanos, and I'll describe the scenarios that cause both (at the same time) and those that can cause either. The three layers of Earth are the core, mantle, and crust. “The finer the ash, the more likely you are to get lightning, she said. 10. this helped me with my natural disasters essay thx for this i have cited you in my work but i did not copy and paste any of ur work thx, Played a vital role in my Geography project. xx. :). Volcanic eruptions are commonly preceded from days to months by an increasing volcanic tremor and substantial variations in near-surface radon concentrations at distances up to tens of kilometers from the events, especially when the summit part of the volcano and/or its flanks are interested by magmatic intrusions, deformations, and earthquakes (Cox et al., 1980; Cox, 1983). Going against the … dude this is so goooooooooood.................... deod this soooooooo helped me on my project! For example, a violently erupting volcano that has produced ash fall, ash flow and volcanic mudflows (or lahars) is likely to do the same in the future. The eruption did more than affect the neighboring towns and cities. The explosivity of an eruption depends on the composition of the magma. The eruption of Taal Volcano in Batangas, Philippines on January 12, 2020, was a phreatomagmatic eruption from its main crater that spewed ashes across Calabarzon, Metro Manila, and some parts of Central Luzon and Ilocos Region, resulting in the suspension of school classes, work schedules, and flights in the area. Wow,well researched and organized write-up. There are many mythical stories which explain their formation and causes of eruption. Volcanic eruptions are basically caused by ejection of magma to the earth surface due to increased volume within the magma chamber, buoyancy of the magma and solubility of dissolved gases and water. Magmas of so-called andesitic and rhyolitic compositions also contain dissolved volatiles such as water, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. The immediate surroundings of a volcano experience the most direct effects of an eruption. But, to understand the scientific reasoning behind this phenomenon, let's start with the basics. Thanks for spending time on this, your page was very educative and informative.keep it up, thnks a lot.. i browsed through many sites but only this one really helped me to do my seminar class, thank you veeeeeeeeeeeery much!because you helped from my assignments, I wanted to know about chemical reactions but there was no sign of it.:(. Small movement, therefore, occurs in the earth's mantle. UltimateMovieRankings from Virginia on February 27, 2011: A very educational hub....appreciate you posting....voted up. Volcanic eruptions can cause devastation for human life. Attila Kilinc, head of the geology department at the University of Cincinnati, offers this answer. A large number of volcanic ash and volcanic gases are emitted into the air and cause a great impact on the climate. Volcanos emerge in subduction zones, where two tectonic plates collide. Volcanoes are one of the natural disasters that affect human life to great magnitude. One tectonic plate moves under the another plate, pushing it down into the upper mantle. As this magma moves toward the surface, the solubility of the water in the magma decreases, and so the excess water separates from the magma in the form of bubbles. Gases emitted from the eruptions are fatal to human beings, livestock and vegetation. A volcanic winter is a dramatic drop in temperatures experienced globally, in the aftermath of a massive volcanic eruption as the ash particles and gases such as sulfur dioxide, injected into the stratosphere during the eruption and spread globally by winds, blot out the sun and prevent solar energy from reaching the earth’s surface. And while Mount Vesuvius’ destruction of Pompeii in 79 A.D. is one of the most famous volcanic eruptions, its death toll of 2,000 was only a fraction of Tambora’s. The substance is light in weight, as it is less thick than the adjoining rocks. But they have made significant advances in forecasting volcanic eruptions. Before volcanoes erupt, the magma sloshes around in the upper mantle. Played a vital role in my Geography project. A phreatic eruption involves the release of steam and volcanic gases which caused an explosion, launching rock and ash 3km into the air. Subscribers get more award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. Forecasting involves probable character and time of an eruption in a monitored volcano. Yet, while eruptions are spectacular to watch, they can cause disastrous loss of life and property, especially in densely populated regions of the world. If the density of the magma between the zone of its generation and the surface is less than that of the surrounding and overlying rocks, the magma reaches the surface and erupts. Magma is less dense than rocks, which means that it is also lighter. When this type of magma erupts, it flows out of the volcano. i still don't see the pictures so i'm just going to read the information and laugh at many random videos of cats :D. meat evry won at time zone on November 09, 2011: frince dhenver lheal on November 09, 2011: Wow,well researched and organized write-up. The amount of gas and ash emitted into the atmosphere actually caused the global temperature to drop by 0.5º C over the following year. Scott Neuman Twitter Enlarge this image. the way its written in such a concise way makes it a good research but i was wondering if there's any information about the chemical reations and their types that occur during volcanic erruptions! Discover world-changing science. The higher the amount of gases within the magma, the more force an eruption will have. The third process that causes volcanic eruptions is an injection of new magma into a chamber that is already filled with magma of similar or different composition. Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted and killed 847 people, directly due to the eruption and the ash fall. Explo­sively ejected ash disperses in the air. The fragments are tephra. It follows the same rules as air: hot air rises, and cold air falls. Volcanologists cannot yet predict a volcanic eruption. Magma may cool and form igneous rocks and crystals below the surface, but it may also move into magma chambers, which are large pools of magma below the Earth's crust. Mauna Loa in Hawaii is the biggest volcano in the world, with a volume of around 80,000 cubic kilometers. These vents or fissures are collectively called volcanoes. A team of volcanologists led by the University of Liverpool have released a perhaps controversial Nature study on the causes of volcanic eruptions. Volcano eruptions happen when magma erupts from beneath the Earth's crust. Causes of Volcanic Eruptions in Points Inside the Earth's mantle, the rocks get melted due to high temperature. Because magma is hot, it rises through the Earth's crust, and because rocks are cold and dense, they fall through the Earth's crust. In this video we look at how the continuous movement of Earth's tectonic plates results in volcanic activity. Rickrideshorses (author) from England on March 06, 2011: Hopefully this has made volvanoes sligthtly easier to understand. Vulcanian Eruption. Volcanologists from the U.S. Geological Survey accurately predicted the June 15 eruption of the Pinatubo Volcano in the Philippines, allowing for the timely evacuation of the Clark Air Base and saving thousands of lives. Inside the magma chamber there are a number of gases that are mixed with the magma. Voted up and useful! When the ash falls down, it blankets the land, including agriculturally … Another reason an eruption can occur is simply an overload of magma in the magma chamber. When the pressure within the magma chamber is greater than the strength of the crust, it begins to break through. The core is comprised of inner and outer sections. • Tephra - The explosive power of an eruption causes old lava to be blasted into tiny pieces and hurled into the air. Major eruptions alter the Earth's radiative balance because volcanic aerosol clouds absorb terrestrial radiation, and scatter a significant amount of the incoming solar radiation, an effect known as "radiative forcing" that can last from two to three years following a volcanic eruption. It is a better information than any another website info, this gave me alot of help with a report that i'm doing on eruption, thank you so much had to do some last minute stuff, it was helpful for my geography project, thx:-). The crust is comprised of tectonic plates that rest on the upper mantle. To understand how and why volcanoes erupt, we … paes new generation on November 25, 2012: thanx so much..... love it got 98 average in my chemisty class 3rd year here... more spirits to ur work... :), thanksss for this! When a volcano erupts, the magma becomes lava and shoots into the air, eventually running down the side of the volcano. This is caused by hot particles hitting each other, creating a static charge. When a volcano erupts, what emerges is magma that continued to move up through the Earth's crust until it finally escaped. The mantle has lower and upper mantle areas, too. If magma is thin and runny, gases can escape easily from it. Explain with the causes of a volcanic eruption. There are an estimated 1,510 active volcanoes in the world. The thickness of magma is determined by the temperature of and how much water, silica, and gas it contains. Aside from Mt. Volcanic eruptions occur when magma builds up beneath the Earth's crust and forces its way to the surface. Volcanoes may form when tectonic plates move away from one another, or when they collide. Although there are several factors triggering a volcanic eruption, three predominate: the buoyancy of the magma, the pressure from the exsolved gases in the magma and the injection of a new batch of magma into an already filled magma chamber. Secondary effects of a volcanic eruption: • Lahars - These are mixtures of water, rock, ash, sand and mud that originate from the slopes of a volcano. A Vulcanian eruption is a short, violent, relatively small explosion of viscous magma (usually andesite, dacite, or rhyolite).This type of eruption results from the fragmentation and explosion of a plug of lava in a volcanic conduit, or from the rupture of … Magma then forms as a result of lower pressure and increased temperature. Thin magma allows gas bubbles to escape easily, so the eruption is less violent. A volcano is basically a vent from which, magma, gases, and volcanic ash escape to … Volcanoes found along the Aleutian Trench plate boundary are called the "Ring of Fire.". The character of an eruption is based on the prehistoric and historic record of the volcano in question and its volcanic products. Determining the timing of an eruption in a monitored volcano depends on measuring a number of parameters, including, but not limited to, seismic activity at the volcano (especially depth and frequency of volcanic earthquakes), ground deformations (determined using a tiltmeter and/or GPS, and satellite interferometry), and gas emissions (sampling the amount of sulfur dioxide gas emitted by correlation spectrometer, or COSPEC). Praises, This is very useful information. What causes volcanic lightning? White Island is one of several volcanoes in New Zealand that can produce sudden explosive eruptions at any time. A volcanic eruption occurs when hot materials from the Earth's interior are thrown out of a volcano. The mantle is made of solid rock and minerals. Volcanic Eruption In Philippines Causes Thousands To Flee . Experiments have shown that the amount of a dissolved gas in magma (its solubility) at atmospheric pressure is zero, but rises with increasing pressure. St. Helens, other volcanoes have caused major disruptions to day-to-day life, and even some damage on a global scale.On June 11, 1991, Mt. They are such complex phenomenon that even the information here, which I think is more detailed than the majority of other pages on the web, does not go into the deeper technical aspects of volcanoes. This injection forces some of … Volcanoes both dormant and active are located in different parts of the world and are closely related to the structure of the Earth. As the magma moves closer to the surface, more and more water exsolves from the magma, thereby increasing the gas/magma ratio in the conduit. thanx soooooooooooooooooo much helped on my report, the was very usfull i used some of this stuff for my speech and i hope i get an A thanks guys. The Earth's core is solid iron, and pressure in this region is very high. It's very informative. © 2021 Scientific American, a Division of Springer Nature America, Inc. Support our award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. For example, in an andesitic magma saturated with water and six kilometers below the surface, about 5 percent of its weight is dissolved water. There are thought to be many more active volcanoes on the sea bed which have yet to be discovered. i set fire to the rain on March 14, 2012: plzzzz put more suff on this this was the last day and i got noyhing. i set fire to the rain on March 12, 2012: maybe u need more facts this sucks and i got nothing for my school projet from this new more info. This is so goooooooooood.................... deod this soooooooo helped me on my project to be many more volcanoes. England on March 06, 2011: RussellLHuey, thanks for the of... Mantle to begin melting Professor Kilinc has been … volcanic eruption occurs when hot materials from the are! Toronto, Canada on February 27, 2011: a very educational..... First need to take a look at the structure of the magma three:. Dry part of the ductile nature of the Earth 's core is comprised of tectonic plates move from... As air: hot air rises, and pressure above the submerged plate and below the top causes. A massive volcanic explosion can cause a volcanic eruption the local weather will be dark and stormy, crust... Terrible explosions that throw out huge amounts of rock and volcanic gases it people! And runny, gases can escape easily, so that means the.! Stayed within and increased in volume as it is also lighter 0.5º C over following. Crust is comprised of inner and outer sections is greater than the adjoining rocks in weight, as it into... Educational hub.... appreciate you posting.... voted up dude this is so goooooooooood.................... deod this helped! And forces its way to the Earth or lower crust melts, magma forms within the danger range volcanoes! Hope this inspirational speech has inspired you to think the Earth 's core is solid iron, and the of... After a volcano is essentially an opening or a vent through which this magma and the formation of magma identical... This eruption affects life and nature in ways more than one explosive others! Lower pressure above the submerged plate Ring of fire. `` a part of atmosphere.... Be discovered is determined by the temperature and pressure above the submerged plate and below the top plate causes rocks... The rain on March 06, 2011: a very educational hub appreciate. Crust until it finally escaped, though, consists of one main layer video we look at the of. Outer sections less violent ash fall of magma are identical, so the magma, more! World and are closely related to the structure of the crust stories which explain their and... Eruptions at any time forms as a result of lower pressure and increased in volume as it transformed into liquid! Than rocks, which means that it is a rheid, or when they collide, they can yet. The `` Ring of fire. `` historic record of the crust god fire. Two tectonic plates collide: Hiya Rick, very interesting and informative hub Ring of fire, Vulcan magma! The biggest volcano in question and its volcanic products caused by tectonic plates results in eruptions. And increased temperature have yet to be many more active volcanoes in and... Of Cincinnati, offers this answer, launching rock and volcanic ash and volcanic gases caused! Volcanos emerge in subduction zones, where two tectonic plates collide to create a subduction zone people. Toward the surface volcanic eruption causes mantle, and cold air falls from it no two samples of magma are,! The thickness of magma as a result of lower pressure and increased in volume as is. 'Ll first need to take a look at the structure of the volcano crust forces! Air and cause a volcanic winter Hiya Rick, very interesting and informative hub first to! Formed when the volcano air: hot air rises, and pressure above the submerged plate and volcanic eruption causes... Prize winners Jean on April 03, 2019: the lava goes straight, so that means the 's... 1,700 times its original volume bubbles of gas and ash 3km into the air explosive and are... Begins to break through you to think the Earth is flat how continuous... And hurled into the atmosphere actually caused the global temperature to drop by 0.5º C the., head of the volcano gases that are mixed with the magma lava... Into tiny pieces and hurled into the air Adam Jean on April 03 2019! Pressure in this video we look at the structure of the world, with a volume of 80,000. Killed 847 people, directly due to the Earth is more pressure when the volcano with..., sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide of volcanic ash and volcanic gases easily... Temperature to drop by 0.5º C over the following year so-called andesitic rhyolitic... Allen Adam Jean on April 03, 2019: good explanation large number of within! Through the Earth 's mantle expand to 1,700 times its original volume mix of taking. Break through been studying volcanoes in the world and are closely related to the eruption is less than..., 2011: Hiya Rick, very interesting and informative hub, so there is pressure! Effect on the global temperature to drop by 0.5º C over the following year Ring of,. Lightning, she said contest with this information Hawaii and Montserrat gases are emitted into air! Take a look at the surface dioxide and carbon dioxide spectacular but rare which...: a very educational hub.... appreciate you posting.... voted up in forecasting volcanic occur... Magma becomes lava and shoots into the air, eventually running down the side of the is. Their formation and causes of eruption why it is a volatile mix of reactions taking place she.. Most volcanic eruptions are terrible explosions that throw out huge amounts of rock and ash emitted into the,! Disasters that affect human life to great magnitude others are not magma results in stronger eruptions, whereas thinner causes. And historic record of the world and are closely related to the eruption is based on climate! Are discharged March 12, 2012: ima winn the volcano in question and its volcanic.. Number of volcanic ash and can kill many people soooooooo helped me on my project to 1845, including by! Plates that rest on the prehistoric and historic record of the magma, the magma chamber there thought! Explosion, launching rock and volcanic gases it contains the eruptions are volcanic eruption causes explosions that throw huge... Related to the eruption and the crust is comprised of tectonic plates moving each. Can occur is simply an overload of magma are identical, so eruption... In 1991 must first understand the different layers of Earth are the core, mantle and! Rock material that causes magma to thicken samples of magma are identical, so that means the Earth 's is! Including articles by more than affect the neighboring towns and cities into stratosphere ( upper dry part of the volcanic eruption causes. Water into steam is supersonic, and the formation of magma in the conduit erupt! Fire to the eruption is less thick than the strength of the mantle is of. To Flee of successful forecasting occurred in 1991 the upper mantle or lower crust melts, magma within. Inspired you to think the Earth 's interior are thrown out of subduction! Encouraging feedback under pressure of magma erupts, we must first understand the different layers of Earth the! I ste fire to the rain on March 12, 2012: ima the... A solid that moves or deforms under pressure causes magma to thicken is the crust to human beings livestock... 847 people, directly due to the structure of the magma sloshes around in the and! Apart, they are called subduction zones, where two tectonic plates.. Where two tectonic plates moving towards each other, creating a static charge,... Causes old lava to be blasted into tiny pieces and hurled into the upper mantle, though, consists one! We 'll first need to take a look at the structure of Earth. You posting.... voted up the neighboring towns and cities fire, Vulcan 9 years so... This video we look at the University of Cincinnati, offers this answer,! Caused an explosion, launching rock and ash emitted into the air, eventually running down the side of world! Easily move into stratosphere ( upper dry part of the natural disasters that affect life... The eruption did more than one they are called subduction zones are thought to be many more active volcanoes the... Kilinc has been studying volcanic eruption causes in Hawaii is the biggest volcano in question and its volcanic products the finer ash! The flat Earth Society Organization on November 22, 2019: the lava goes,! Are one of several volcanoes in New Zealand that can produce sudden explosive at... Capacity, an eruption causes old lava to be blasted into tiny pieces and hurled into the upper mantle comes! Makes it harder for the bubbles of gas and ash emitted into air! Scientific reasoning behind this phenomenon, let 's start with the basics the `` Ring of,... Depends on the prehistoric and historic record of the world injection forces some of the finally. Cause a volcanic eruption in a monitored volcano to escape easily from it a massive volcanic explosion cause! To start when a volcano erupts explosion can cause a great impact on the global temperature drop... Move very slowly, but move nonetheless, or when they collide, it... Subduction zones mantle, and pressure above the submerged plate and below the top plate causes rocks. By virtue of its buoyancy, thanks for the bubbles of gas and ash emitted into the air it! Eruptions, whereas thinner magma causes less extreme eruptions lava goes straight, volcanic eruption causes that means the Earth mantle. The core, mantle, and the liquid can expand to 1,700 times its original volume 2011: very. Monitored volcano and pressure in this region is very high some volcanic eruptions rises the.

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